Field Manuals: fm 3-05 Army Special Operations Forces
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Field Manuals: fm 3-05 Army Special Operations Forces
The world remains a dangerous place, full of authoritarian regimes, terrorist
organizations, and criminal interests whose combined influences extend the realm of
They foster an environment for extremism and the drive to acquire
asymmetric capabilities and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The threats to
peace and stability are numerous, complex, oftentimes linked, and sometimes
aggravated by natural disaster.
The spectrum of likely operations describes a need for ARSOF in joint, combined,
and multinational formations for a variety of missions—from humanitarian
assistance to major theater wars, including conflicts involving the potential use of
ARSOF are responsive and dominant at every point on the spectrum. They
provide to the Nation an array of deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable, and
sustainable formations, which are affordable and capable of rapidly reversing the
conditions of human suffering and decisively resolving conflicts.
ARSOF IN SUPPORT OF THE WAR ON TERRORISM
1-1. The U.S. military is engaged in one of the most challenging periods in its history. ARSOF are, and
will be for the near future, continuously engaged against terrorists whose goal is the destruction of
American freedoms and the American way of life.
1-2. United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) is the lead combatant command (COCOM) for planning, synchronizing, and, as directed, executing global operations against terrorist networks in coordination with other combatant commanders (CCDRs).
Commander, United States Special Operations Command (CDRUSSOCOM) leads a global collaborative planning process leveraging other COCOM capabilities and expertise that results in decentralized execution by both USSOCOM and other COCOMs against terrorist networks. Internally, USSOCOM considers its role in the process of synchronizing Department of Defense (DOD) efforts in the War on Terrorism (WOT) to be a core task of its headquarters (HQ), with specific responsibilities including—
Integrating DOD strategy, plans, intelligence priorities, and operations against terrorist networks,
as designated by the Secretary of Defense (SecDef).
Planning campaigns against terrorist networks and exercising command and control (C2) of
operations in support of selected campaigns, as directed.
Prioritizing and synchronizing theater security cooperation activities, deployments, and
capabilities supporting campaigns against designated terrorist networks in coordination with the
geographic combatant commanders (GCCs).
Providing military representation to U.S. national and international agencies for matters related
to U.S. and multinational campaigns against designated terrorist networks, as directed by the
Planning operational preparation of the environment (OPE); executing OPE or synchronizing the
execution of OPE in coordination with the GCCs.
Survival-SHTF-Guide: fm 3-05 Army Special Operations Forces
RANGE OF MILITARY OPERATIONS
1-6. The United States employs ARSOF capabilities at home and abroad in support of U.S. national
security goals in a variety of operations. These operations vary in size, purpose, and combat intensity within a range of military operations.
These operations extend from military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence to lesser contingency operations and, if necessary, major operations and campaigns (Figure 1-1, page 1-3).
Use of ARSOF capabilities in military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence
activities helps shape the operational environment and keep the day-to-day tensions between nations or groups below the threshold of armed conflict while maintaining U.S. global influence. Many of the missions associated with lesser contingencies, such as logistics support and foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA), do not require combat.
But others, such as Operation RESTORE HOPE in Somalia, can be extremely
dangerous and require a significant effort to protect U.S. forces while accomplishing the mission.
Individual major operations and campaigns often contribute to a larger, long-term effort—for example, Operation ENDURING FREEDOM, as part of the WOT. The nature of the security environment is such that ARSOF are often engaged in several types of joint operations simultaneously.
GLOBAL NATURE OF OPERATIONS
1-7. ARSOF have global reach and are capable of engaging threats and influencing potential adversaries with a variety of capabilities. However, global reach and influence are not just the purview of nation-states. Globalization and emerging technologies allow small groups to use asymmetric approaches, to include criminal activity, terrorism, or armed aggression on a transnational scale, with relative ease and with little cost.
1-8. Adversaries place greater emphasis on developing capabilities to threaten the United States directly and indirectly.
Increased interdependence of national economies and rapid movement of information around the world create significant challenges in the defense of U.S. interests. Identifying potential threats (nations and non-State actors) operating independently or in loose coalitions, determining their intent, and determining the best course of action (COA) to counter their actions are interagency and multinational challenges for the United States.
1-9. The elusive nature of adversaries and the ever-increasing speed of global communications and the media demand greater adaptability and networking from ARSOF, particularly communications and intelligence resources. Consequently, SOF conduct some operations on a global, not theater, scale (for example, SO in the WOT) as part of the U.S. security strategy to prevent direct or indirect attacks on the U.S. homeland and other national interests.
These operations are conducted in depth, focusing on the threat source across geographical regions, including forward regions, approaches, and the homeland. The divisions among the three regions are not absolute and may overlap or shift, depending on the situation and the threat.
The doctrine of SOF, c-1, 4-20, fm 4, and Fm-7 including intel and intelligence tactics, capabilities,
elements and military operations (ops) for the government, soldiers and training of such include the
army and airdrop systems.
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