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Field Manuals: Essential Survival Guide FM 3-05-70

Field Manuals: Essential Survival Guide FM 3-05-70

This is the essential field manual on survival. Survivalists need this resource for everything about survival in the urban area and the wilderness or country. Tactics techniques and procedures on every survive situation.

This field manual, or FM is a handbook that is absolutely needed in the library of manuals concerning SHTF or Preppers everywhere.

Preface

As a soldier, you can be sent to any area of the world. It may be in a temperate, tropical, arctic, or subarctic region. You expect to have all your personal equipment and your unit members with you wherever you go. However, there is no guarantee it will be so.

You could find yourself alone in a remote area—possibly enemy territory—with little or no personal gear. This manual provides information and describes basic techniques that will enable you to survive and return alive should you find yourself in such a
situation.

If you are a trainer, use this information as a base on which to build survival training. You know the areas.

Which your unit is likely to deploy, the means by which it will travel, and the territory through which it will travel. Read what this manual says about survival in those particular areas and find out all you can about those areas. Read other books on survival. Develop a survival-training program that will enable your unit members to meet any survival situation they may face. It can make the difference between life and death.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION . 1-1 Survival Actions . 1-1 Pattern for Survival 1-5 Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL 2-1 A Look at Stress 2-2 Natural Reactions 2-6 Preparing Yourself . 2-9 Chapter 3 SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS 3-1 Importance of Planning 3-2 Survival Kits .

3-3 Chapter 4 BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE4-1 Requirements for Maintenance of Health 4-1 Medical Emergencies.4-8 Lifesaving Steps.4-9 Bone and Joint Injury .4-18 Bites and Stings .4-21 Wounds. 4-27 Environmental Injuries .4-32 Herbal Medicines .4-35 Chapter 5 SHELTERS5-1

Essential Survival Guide FM 3-05-70

SHTF Survival


Field Manuals: fm 6-02.72 Tactical Radios

Field Manuals: fm 6-02.72 Tactical Radios

Joint Vision (JV) 2020, a conceptual template for America’s armed forces, will guide the application of combat power in the information age. JV 2020 predicts that joint and, where possible, combined operations will be paramount in defeating postulated threats in the future.

The key to effective employment of joint and/or combined forces lies in the JV 2020 tenet of information dominance. This concept envisions using modern communications capabilities and computers to enable commanders, planners, and shooters to acquire and share information rapidly.

The enhanced ability to share information improves the ability to find and target the enemy quickly and precisely. Joint and combined operations mandate the requirement for the exchange of information, both voice and data, among and between participating forces.

The fielded capabilities of the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) tactical radio have been effective in providing secure, low probability of intercept/electronic attack voice communications in the frequency hop (FH) mode for the implementing forces.

Enhancements to SINCGARS provide for the exchange of secure data through the evolving Army and Marine Corps tactical Internets, enabling increased situational awareness and more expedient engagement of the enemy while reducing the probability of fratricide.

In addition, the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) is used by military forces to provide command and control (C2) data distribution, battlefield situation awareness, and position location services. Operations This publication provides an overview of the doctrinal procedures and guidance for using the SINCGARS tactical radio on the modern battlefield. This manual serves as a reference document for employing SINCGARS as a secure, low probability of intercept/ electronic attack FH communications system.

It briefly addresses the SINCGARS capability to transmit data as part of the combat net radio (CNR) system. This manual also provides operators and supervisors with basic guidance and reference to operating instructions.

It gives the system planner the information necessary to plan the SINCGARS network, including interoperability considerations and equipment capabilities. This manual also reviews the multiservice applications of EPLRS. This manual does not replace field manuals or technical manuals governing tactical deployment or equipment use.

System Characteristics The CNR network is designed around the SINCGARS, the high frequency (HF) radio, and the SC tactical satellite (TACSAT). Each system has different capabilities and transmission characteristics. SINCGARS is a family of user-owned and operated, very high frequency-frequency modulation (VHF-FM) CNRs.

Survival-SHTF-Guide: fm 6-02.72 Tactical Radios

1. Modes of Operation

a. Operating Modes. SINCGARS radios offer a range of operating modes to commanders. These modes include SC and FH in both cipher text (CT) and plain text (PT).

b. Considerations. When establishing SINCGARS nets, commanders must consider the mission, availability, and capabilities of SINCGARS communications equipment, electronic attack (EA) capabilities of adversary forces, and U.S. national security policy.

SC PT operations provide ease of operation but no security or protection. FH CT operations provide both message traffic security and EA (jamming and direction finding) resistant transmissions. FH CT communication protects both the message and the sender.

c. SC Mode. SINCGARS radios can store SC frequencies and offsets. SC frequencies and offsets (plus or minus 5 or 10 kHz) are entered manually through the radio’s keypad. When operating in the FH mode, two of the SC presets are reserved for the manual and cue channels (non-ASIP ICOM only). SINCGARS is voice interoperable with all SC radios operating in the SINCGARS frequency range and channel spacing.

d. FH Mode. SINCGARS radios can store FH data for unique FH nets. SINCGARS radios require four data elements to communicate in the FH mode. The data elements are: hopsets/lockouts; net identification (ID); net sync time; and transmission security key (TSK). Once FH data is loaded, the user moves from one FH net to the other by selecting another FH net using the channel selector switch (non-ASIP ICOM only).

In addition, users in nets sharing a common hopset, TSK, and sync time can also move from net to net by entering the appropriate net ID. The ASIP ICOM radio does not have a channel select switch. With the ASIP ICOM radio, switching hopsets is accomplished by switching to the NCS mode. Move the position select knob to of the army “load”, press “freq”, press “menu clear”, enter the last two numbers of the hopset, press “STO” and select the channel where the hopset is to be stored.

The tactical radios of the JTRS waveforms and ground coms for joint tactical radio system and radio systems not including the price of the system and products.

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Field Manuals: fm 6-02.74 HF-ALE HIGH FREQUENCY AUTOMATIC LINK ESTABLISHMENT RADIOS

Field Manuals: fm 6-02.74 HF-ALE HIGH FREQUENCY AUTOMATIC LINK ESTABLISHMENT RADIOS

Propagation describes how radio signals radiate outward from a transmitting source. A radio transmitter’s antenna emits radio waves much like the wave motion formed by dropping a stone in a pool of water.

This action is simple to imagine for radio waves that travel in a straight line in free space. The true path radio waves take, and how the earth’s atmosphere affects these waves, is more complex.

2. Earth’s Atmosphere The earth’s atmosphere is divided into three separate regions. The layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the ionosphere. Most of the earth’s weather takes place in the troposphere, which extends from the earth’s surface to about 10 miles up. The weather variations in temperature, density, and pressure have a great effect on the propagation of radio waves. The stratosphere, which extends from roughly 10 to 30 miles up, has little effect on radio wave propagation.

The ionosphere, which extends from 30 to approximately 375 miles up, contains up to four cloud-like layers of electrically charged ions. It is this region and its ionized layers that enable radio waves to be propagated great distances. The ionosphere, and how it effects radio wave propagation, is discussed on page I-2. 3. Types of Propagation There are two basic modes of propagation: ground waves and sky waves.

Ground waves travel along the surface of the earth and are used primarily for short-range communications. Sky waves, reflected by the ionosphere, are “bounced” or reflected back to earth and provide a long-haul communications path, as well as short-range (0 to 180 miles or 300 kilometers [km]) communication in mountainous terrain.

a. Ground Waves. Ground waves consist of three components: surface waves, direct waves, and ground-reflected waves.

(1) Surface Waves. Surface waves travel along the surface of the earth, reaching beyond the horizon. Eventually, surface wave energy is absorbed by the earth. The effective range of surface waves is largely determined by the frequency and conductivity of the surface over which the waves travel.

Bodies of water and flat land have the least amount of absorption, while desert and jungle areas have the greatest. For a given complement of equipment, the range may extend from 200 to 250 miles over a conductive, all-sea-water path.

Survival-SHTF-Guide: fm 6-02.74 HF-ALE HIGH FREQUENCY AUTOMATIC LINK ESTABLISHMENT RADIOS

Automatic Link Establishment Overview Automatic link establishment (ALE) is a communication system that permits HF radio stations to call and link on the best HF channel automatically without operator assistance.

Typically, ALE systems make use of recently measured radio channel characteristics stored in a memory matrix to select the best frequency. The system works much like a telephone in that each radio in a network is assigned an address (similar to a call sign). When not in use, each radio receiver constantly scans through its assigned frequencies, listening for calls addressed to it.

1. ALE Linking Sequence a. To reach a specific station, the radio operator simply enters an address, just like dialing a telephone number. The radio consults its memory matrix and selects the best available assigned frequency. It then sends out a brief digital message containing the identification (ID) of the destination.

When the receiving station hears its address, it stops scanning and stays on that frequency. The two stations automatically conduct a “handshake” to confirm that a link is established, and they are ready to communicate (see figure II-I). Figure II-1.

ALE Linking Sequence b. The receiving station, which has been squelched, will emit an audible alert and/or a visual indication of the ALE address of the station that called to alert the operator of an incoming call. At the conclusion of the call, either operator can “hang-up” or terminate the link;

a disconnect signal is sent to the other station and they each return to the scanning mode. The HF High Frequency in HF communications involve both LQA radios and multi-service channel radios.

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