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Field Manuals: US Army FM 21-31 – Topographic Symbols

Field Manuals: US Army FM 21-31 – Topographic Symbols

23.1. Joint Operations Graphics

a. Purpose and Scope. Joint Operations Graphics are produced in both ground and air versions. The ground version is designated as Series 1501; the air version is designated as Series 1501 AIR. Both versions are designed to provide common base graphics for use in combined operations by the ground and air forces of allied nations. The topographic information is identical on both the ground and air versions.

b. Unit of Vertical Measure. On the ground version, elevation and contour values are shown in meters. These values are converted to foot units on the air version.

c. Aeronautical Information. Both versions contain identical information regarding aerodromes and obstructions to pilotage. The air version contains additional information concerning aids to air navigation.

d. Shaded Relief. Both versions contain an identical representation of shading, to provide a rapid recognition of slope and landforms. The shading also serves as a means of correlating contours and elevations, with emphasis on the more significant terrain features.

e. Elevation Tints. Both versions contain a representative system of color tints which depict areas of the same elevation range. A key box on each version indicates the elevation ranges and their corresponding color tints. j. Symbols. The following approved symbols for Joint Operations Graphics are in addition to, or different from, the standard medium-scale symbols shown in figures 1 through 242

Survival-SHTF-Guide: US Army FM 21-31 – Topographic Symbols


This manual describes the topographic symbols and abbreviations authorized for use by all echelons in the interpretation of military maps, overlays, and related features and activities. 2. Scope This manual is divided into four chapters. a.

Chapter 1 contains general information on the use of topographic symbols, gives the basic scales for topographic maps, defines topographic maps, and discusses map detail, map accuracy, and map colors. b.

Chapter 2 gives examples and illustrations of topographic symbols arranged by categories, such as d r a i n a g e features, relief features, and roads. c. Chapter 3 gives topographic abbreviations, their scope and application. d.

Chapter 4 discusses marginal information. 3. References Appendix I is a list of publications which give detailed information on maps and mapping, foreign conventional signs and symbols, reference data for the various services, transportation and signal facilities, and abbreviations for administrative and electrically transmitted messages.

4. Symbols and Abbreviations a. Some of the symbols appearing on published maps may not agree entirely with those shown in this manual, since it is necessary to devise or modify symbols to portray conditions or features which are unique to the area being mapped. Consequently, before any map is used, the symbol legend appearing in the margin should be carefully studied.

The contours of a map and topo map from the USGS or other, shape, roads and features, lakes, vegetation, elevation gains, scale, railroad boundaries and other map symbology is all included in this download.

Us Army Field Manuals, tactics techniques and procedures, field manual should be excellent resource for your SHTF collection! These military field manuals or guides, US army manuals or military manuals are all FREE download manuals.

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This field manual provides doctrinal how-to-fight guidance for the Patriot
battalion and battery, and is intended primarily for battalion
commanders, staff officers, battery commanders, platoon leaders, and
tactical directors.

This FM is applicable to all theaters of operations. It focuses on Patriot’s
role in the projection of land and air combat power. Chapters address
Patriot’s role in the joint battle, the threat, battalion planning, force projection
operations, offensive and defensive operations, and combat
service support.

Appendices cover unit organization, equipment,
communications, intelligence preparation of the battlespace, safety,
transportability, and reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of a

This FM should be used in conjunction with FM 3-01.87, which describes
the tactics, techniques and procedures required to execute Patriot
operations and exploit Patriot’s combat power. Classified capabilities and
planning data for the Patriot system are found in (S) FM 3-01.13 (S/NF).



1-1. The mission of the Army is to fight and win the nation’s wars, defend the
United States and its territories, and support national policies and objectives
articulated in the National Security Strategy and National Military Strategy.

1-2. The Army accomplishes this mission through a force structure comprised
of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces.

• Combat forces provide destructive capabilities to defeat the enemy.
These forces include, armor, aviation, infantry, and Special Forces

• Combat support forces provide fire support and operational
assistance to combat forces. These support forces include the ADA,
field artillery, engineers, chemical, military intelligence, military
police, and signal units.

• Combat service support forces provide essential support required to
sustain operations throughout a campaign. These forces include the
medical, transportation, quartermaster, ordnance, and several other

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Field Manuals: Essential Survival Guide FM 3-05-70

Field Manuals: Essential Survival Guide FM 3-05-70

This is the essential field manual on survival. Survivalists need this resource for everything about survival in the urban area and the wilderness or country. Tactics techniques and procedures on every survive situation.

This field manual, or FM is a handbook that is absolutely needed in the library of manuals concerning SHTF or Preppers everywhere.


As a soldier, you can be sent to any area of the world. It may be in a temperate, tropical, arctic, or subarctic region. You expect to have all your personal equipment and your unit members with you wherever you go. However, there is no guarantee it will be so.

You could find yourself alone in a remote area—possibly enemy territory—with little or no personal gear. This manual provides information and describes basic techniques that will enable you to survive and return alive should you find yourself in such a

If you are a trainer, use this information as a base on which to build survival training. You know the areas.

Which your unit is likely to deploy, the means by which it will travel, and the territory through which it will travel. Read what this manual says about survival in those particular areas and find out all you can about those areas. Read other books on survival. Develop a survival-training program that will enable your unit members to meet any survival situation they may face. It can make the difference between life and death.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION . 1-1 Survival Actions . 1-1 Pattern for Survival 1-5 Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL 2-1 A Look at Stress 2-2 Natural Reactions 2-6 Preparing Yourself . 2-9 Chapter 3 SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS 3-1 Importance of Planning 3-2 Survival Kits .

3-3 Chapter 4 BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE4-1 Requirements for Maintenance of Health 4-1 Medical Emergencies.4-8 Lifesaving Steps.4-9 Bone and Joint Injury .4-18 Bites and Stings .4-21 Wounds. 4-27 Environmental Injuries .4-32 Herbal Medicines .4-35 Chapter 5 SHELTERS5-1

Essential Survival Guide FM 3-05-70

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