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Field Manuals: US Army FM 21-31 – Topographic Symbols

Field Manuals: US Army FM 21-31 – Topographic Symbols

23.1. Joint Operations Graphics

a. Purpose and Scope. Joint Operations Graphics are produced in both ground and air versions. The ground version is designated as Series 1501; the air version is designated as Series 1501 AIR. Both versions are designed to provide common base graphics for use in combined operations by the ground and air forces of allied nations. The topographic information is identical on both the ground and air versions.

b. Unit of Vertical Measure. On the ground version, elevation and contour values are shown in meters. These values are converted to foot units on the air version.

c. Aeronautical Information. Both versions contain identical information regarding aerodromes and obstructions to pilotage. The air version contains additional information concerning aids to air navigation.

d. Shaded Relief. Both versions contain an identical representation of shading, to provide a rapid recognition of slope and landforms. The shading also serves as a means of correlating contours and elevations, with emphasis on the more significant terrain features.

e. Elevation Tints. Both versions contain a representative system of color tints which depict areas of the same elevation range. A key box on each version indicates the elevation ranges and their corresponding color tints. j. Symbols. The following approved symbols for Joint Operations Graphics are in addition to, or different from, the standard medium-scale symbols shown in figures 1 through 242

Survival-SHTF-Guide: US Army FM 21-31 – Topographic Symbols

Purpose

This manual describes the topographic symbols and abbreviations authorized for use by all echelons in the interpretation of military maps, overlays, and related features and activities. 2. Scope This manual is divided into four chapters. a.

Chapter 1 contains general information on the use of topographic symbols, gives the basic scales for topographic maps, defines topographic maps, and discusses map detail, map accuracy, and map colors. b.

Chapter 2 gives examples and illustrations of topographic symbols arranged by categories, such as d r a i n a g e features, relief features, and roads. c. Chapter 3 gives topographic abbreviations, their scope and application. d.

Chapter 4 discusses marginal information. 3. References Appendix I is a list of publications which give detailed information on maps and mapping, foreign conventional signs and symbols, reference data for the various services, transportation and signal facilities, and abbreviations for administrative and electrically transmitted messages.

4. Symbols and Abbreviations a. Some of the symbols appearing on published maps may not agree entirely with those shown in this manual, since it is necessary to devise or modify symbols to portray conditions or features which are unique to the area being mapped. Consequently, before any map is used, the symbol legend appearing in the margin should be carefully studied.

The contours of a map and topo map from the USGS or other, shape, roads and features, lakes, vegetation, elevation gains, scale, railroad boundaries and other map symbology is all included in this download.

Us Army Field Manuals, tactics techniques and procedures, field manual should be excellent resource for your SHTF collection! These military field manuals or guides, US army manuals or military manuals are all FREE download manuals.

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Field Manuals: fm 6-02.72 Tactical Radios

Field Manuals: fm 6-02.72 Tactical Radios

Joint Vision (JV) 2020, a conceptual template for America’s armed forces, will guide the application of combat power in the information age. JV 2020 predicts that joint and, where possible, combined operations will be paramount in defeating postulated threats in the future.

The key to effective employment of joint and/or combined forces lies in the JV 2020 tenet of information dominance. This concept envisions using modern communications capabilities and computers to enable commanders, planners, and shooters to acquire and share information rapidly.

The enhanced ability to share information improves the ability to find and target the enemy quickly and precisely. Joint and combined operations mandate the requirement for the exchange of information, both voice and data, among and between participating forces.

The fielded capabilities of the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) tactical radio have been effective in providing secure, low probability of intercept/electronic attack voice communications in the frequency hop (FH) mode for the implementing forces.

Enhancements to SINCGARS provide for the exchange of secure data through the evolving Army and Marine Corps tactical Internets, enabling increased situational awareness and more expedient engagement of the enemy while reducing the probability of fratricide.

In addition, the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) is used by military forces to provide command and control (C2) data distribution, battlefield situation awareness, and position location services. Operations This publication provides an overview of the doctrinal procedures and guidance for using the SINCGARS tactical radio on the modern battlefield. This manual serves as a reference document for employing SINCGARS as a secure, low probability of intercept/ electronic attack FH communications system.

It briefly addresses the SINCGARS capability to transmit data as part of the combat net radio (CNR) system. This manual also provides operators and supervisors with basic guidance and reference to operating instructions.

It gives the system planner the information necessary to plan the SINCGARS network, including interoperability considerations and equipment capabilities. This manual also reviews the multiservice applications of EPLRS. This manual does not replace field manuals or technical manuals governing tactical deployment or equipment use.

System Characteristics The CNR network is designed around the SINCGARS, the high frequency (HF) radio, and the SC tactical satellite (TACSAT). Each system has different capabilities and transmission characteristics. SINCGARS is a family of user-owned and operated, very high frequency-frequency modulation (VHF-FM) CNRs.

Survival-SHTF-Guide: fm 6-02.72 Tactical Radios

1. Modes of Operation

a. Operating Modes. SINCGARS radios offer a range of operating modes to commanders. These modes include SC and FH in both cipher text (CT) and plain text (PT).

b. Considerations. When establishing SINCGARS nets, commanders must consider the mission, availability, and capabilities of SINCGARS communications equipment, electronic attack (EA) capabilities of adversary forces, and U.S. national security policy.

SC PT operations provide ease of operation but no security or protection. FH CT operations provide both message traffic security and EA (jamming and direction finding) resistant transmissions. FH CT communication protects both the message and the sender.

c. SC Mode. SINCGARS radios can store SC frequencies and offsets. SC frequencies and offsets (plus or minus 5 or 10 kHz) are entered manually through the radio’s keypad. When operating in the FH mode, two of the SC presets are reserved for the manual and cue channels (non-ASIP ICOM only). SINCGARS is voice interoperable with all SC radios operating in the SINCGARS frequency range and channel spacing.

d. FH Mode. SINCGARS radios can store FH data for unique FH nets. SINCGARS radios require four data elements to communicate in the FH mode. The data elements are: hopsets/lockouts; net identification (ID); net sync time; and transmission security key (TSK). Once FH data is loaded, the user moves from one FH net to the other by selecting another FH net using the channel selector switch (non-ASIP ICOM only).

In addition, users in nets sharing a common hopset, TSK, and sync time can also move from net to net by entering the appropriate net ID. The ASIP ICOM radio does not have a channel select switch. With the ASIP ICOM radio, switching hopsets is accomplished by switching to the NCS mode. Move the position select knob to of the army “load”, press “freq”, press “menu clear”, enter the last two numbers of the hopset, press “STO” and select the channel where the hopset is to be stored.

The tactical radios of the JTRS waveforms and ground coms for joint tactical radio system and radio systems not including the price of the system and products.

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fm 3-05-102 ARMY SPECIAL FORCES INTELLIGENCE

Field Manuals: fm 3-05-102 ARMY SPECIAL FORCES INTELLIGENCE

Operations and ARSOF

This chapter describes the range of military operations, characteristics of
ARSOF units and their missions, and considerations for their
employment. It provides an overview of concepts addressed in FM 3-05
(FM 100-25). The fundamental purpose of ARSOF intelligence operations
is to provide the commander with the information required to visualize
the adversary and the environment. This support will enable ARSOF to
successfully conduct worldwide special operations (SO) throughout the
range of military operations supporting the geographic combatant
commanders, American ambassadors and their country teams, and other
government agencies.

INTRODUCTION

1-1. ARSOF are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct SO
independently or in conjunction with the operations of Army conventional
forces, joint forces, and/or combined forces. ARSOF support the national
security strategy by:

• Enhancing security with their unique military capabilities.
• Promoting prosperity by supporting global and domestic stability.
• Promoting security through the development and preservation of
democracy.

RANGE OF MILITARY OPERATIONS

1-2. ARSOF conduct operations throughout the range of military operations
(war and MOOTW). ARSOF provide geographic combatant commanders
additional means to shape the environment and respond to crises, while
preparing for future requirements (Figure 1-1, page 1-2). ARSOF can support
the joint force commander (JFC) at all levels—strategic, operational, or
tactical—as follows:

• The strategic level concerns the broadest aspects of national and
theater policy. Decisions at this level reflect national and multinational
goals, integrate all the instruments of national power, provide forces,
and determine constraints and restraints on their use. The National
Command Authorities (NCA) and the geographic combatant
commanders determine the strategic-national and strategic-theater
objectives and the manner of use of military means to achieve them.
The NCA or the geographic combatant commanders may directly or
indirectly (through subordinate commanders) employ ARSOF in
pursuit of these objectives.

Survival-SHTF-Guide: fm 3-05-102 ARMY SPECIAL FORCES INTELLIGENCE

WAR

1-4. War is large-scale, sustained combat between nations or organized
groups within a nation. War involves regular and irregular forces in a series
of connected battles and campaigns to achieve vital national, tribal, or ethnic
objectives. War may be limited, with some self-imposed restraints on
resources or objectives. It also may be general, with the total resources of a
nation or nations employed and the survival of the nation at stake.
1-5. ARSOF can support a JFC in war through the conduct of a variety of
offense, defense, stability, and support actions. These actions may either
directly accomplish the JFC’s objectives or indirectly attain these objectives
through the directed support to other subordinate forces of the JFC. In war,
ARSOF are not normally the main effort, but rather supporting forces to the
major air, land, and maritime combat forces.

1-6. SO missions may require unorthodox approaches, but these approaches
do not negate the traditional principles of war. Rather, they place a different
emphasis on their combination or relative importance. In some SO missions,
surprise achieved through speed, stealth, audacity, deception, and new
tactics or techniques can be far more effective and efficient than traditional
conventional tactics that are based on massed firepower and tactical
maneuvers. The following discussion of the principles of war highlights their
application to ARSOF.

Objective

1-7. Direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive, and
attainable objective. ARSOF objectives are as much political, economic, and
informational as they are military in nature. ARSOF planners must avoid
adding a secondary objective by balancing risks versus gain. They must have
a clear understanding of the capabilities and limitations of ARSOF. The
addition of secondary objectives erodes the definition and decisiveness of the
primary objective. The intelligence and mission support area of operation capabilities, military, army, and soldiers in the theater of ops. Training of wartime scenarios and other detachment force strength battalion skills…

Offensive

1-8. Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. ARSOF are inherently offensive
in nature because they seek to strike or engage an adversary to compel,
deter, or counter his actions. The strike or engagement conducted by ARSOF
may take place alongside or by effect of a surrogate force. This force may be
one that ARSOF has previously trained or is currently training. CA and
PSYOP exploit the initiative by gaining the support of the civilians in the area
of operations (AO).

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