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Counterproliferation Operations

The US military response to the threat, and actual use of NBC weapons is
counterproliferation. Counterproliferation is a multitiered, integrated approach intended to
deter NBC use and enable US forces to survive, fight, and win in an NBC environment.
Counterproliferation is built on four core capabilities: counterforce, active defense, passive
defense, and consequence management;

it is also enhanced by military support to
nonproliferation efforts. It includes the activities of the Department of Defense (DOD)
across the full range of US government (USG) efforts to combat proliferation (see Figure I-
1). Commanders at all levels are responsible for the integration and synchronization of
these four core capabilities into their overall operations in support of national
nonproliferation and counterproliferation objectives.

a. Counterproliferation exists across a sequence of mutually supporting operations
that form a continuum of interrelated activities that employ both offensive and defensive
measures. The success of efforts in one area impacts other functions throughout the
operational cycle. The focus of this publication is passive defense.

An awareness of how
passive defense fits within the counterproliferation operations concept is important because
passive defense operations can be impacted by the other three core capabilities.


Maintaining Preparedness

Maintaining military preparedness for potential operations in NBC environments
presents significant challenges and places extraordinary demands on commanders at all
echelons for a clear understanding of potential threats and the requirements for unity of
effort among US forces (service, interagency, joint, multiservice, and multinational) in the
US and abroad.

Threat assessment includes overseas areas of potential conflict as well as
US territory, with particular attention to the civilian infrastructure, military forces, types
of hazards that may be encountered (i.e., low-level exposure hazards), and facilities needed
to support the range of military operations.

Preparedness includes visibly and successfully
exercising service, joint, multinational, and interagency plans that demonstrate the
capability to operate in NBC environments because the use of NBC weapons could impact
strategic, operational, or tactical operations.

a. Background. Maintaining preparedness may include combat operations and
MOOTW such as peace operations, foreign humanitarian assistance, and other military
support to civil authorities (MSCA). This environment presents numerous opportunities for
US military operations to encounter antagonists possessing NBC weapons or toxic

b. Low-Level Exposure. In addition to the employment of NBC weapons by a threat,
maintaining preparedness includes being alert to other dangerous hazards that can persist
in the AO. Prevalent among those hazards are low-level radiation (LLR), depleted uranium
(DU), TIM, and biological agents (covertly or accidentally dispersed).

An LLR threat can
exist in certain expended munitions, damaged or destroyed equipment, or contaminated
shrapnel—as well as inadequate nuclear waste disposal, deterioration of nuclear power
facilities, or damage to facilities that routinely use radioactive material. LLR produces longterm
radiation exposure health consequences for personnel. DU found in munitions does
not present significant hazards as long as the round is intact.

However, care must be taken around vehicles that have been hit by DU rounds or fires where DU munitions are involved because inhalation and ingestion of DU dust and residue present a health hazard. TIM are often present in enormous quantities in the AO and can be released from industrial plants, transport containers, or storage facilities through battle damage or used as a desperation
measure during military operations.

The multiservice CBRN and other FM and MCWP of the army and NBC technique are contained, for
download and SS in FM 4, FM 7, FM 100 and c-1 protection doctrines.

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Propagation describes how radio signals radiate outward from a transmitting source. A radio transmitter’s antenna emits radio waves much like the wave motion formed by dropping a stone in a pool of water.

This action is simple to imagine for radio waves that travel in a straight line in free space. The true path radio waves take, and how the earth’s atmosphere affects these waves, is more complex.

2. Earth’s Atmosphere The earth’s atmosphere is divided into three separate regions. The layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the ionosphere. Most of the earth’s weather takes place in the troposphere, which extends from the earth’s surface to about 10 miles up. The weather variations in temperature, density, and pressure have a great effect on the propagation of radio waves. The stratosphere, which extends from roughly 10 to 30 miles up, has little effect on radio wave propagation.

The ionosphere, which extends from 30 to approximately 375 miles up, contains up to four cloud-like layers of electrically charged ions. It is this region and its ionized layers that enable radio waves to be propagated great distances. The ionosphere, and how it effects radio wave propagation, is discussed on page I-2. 3. Types of Propagation There are two basic modes of propagation: ground waves and sky waves.

Ground waves travel along the surface of the earth and are used primarily for short-range communications. Sky waves, reflected by the ionosphere, are “bounced” or reflected back to earth and provide a long-haul communications path, as well as short-range (0 to 180 miles or 300 kilometers [km]) communication in mountainous terrain.

a. Ground Waves. Ground waves consist of three components: surface waves, direct waves, and ground-reflected waves.

(1) Surface Waves. Surface waves travel along the surface of the earth, reaching beyond the horizon. Eventually, surface wave energy is absorbed by the earth. The effective range of surface waves is largely determined by the frequency and conductivity of the surface over which the waves travel.

Bodies of water and flat land have the least amount of absorption, while desert and jungle areas have the greatest. For a given complement of equipment, the range may extend from 200 to 250 miles over a conductive, all-sea-water path.


Automatic Link Establishment Overview Automatic link establishment (ALE) is a communication system that permits HF radio stations to call and link on the best HF channel automatically without operator assistance.

Typically, ALE systems make use of recently measured radio channel characteristics stored in a memory matrix to select the best frequency. The system works much like a telephone in that each radio in a network is assigned an address (similar to a call sign). When not in use, each radio receiver constantly scans through its assigned frequencies, listening for calls addressed to it.

1. ALE Linking Sequence a. To reach a specific station, the radio operator simply enters an address, just like dialing a telephone number. The radio consults its memory matrix and selects the best available assigned frequency. It then sends out a brief digital message containing the identification (ID) of the destination.

When the receiving station hears its address, it stops scanning and stays on that frequency. The two stations automatically conduct a “handshake” to confirm that a link is established, and they are ready to communicate (see figure II-I). Figure II-1.

ALE Linking Sequence b. The receiving station, which has been squelched, will emit an audible alert and/or a visual indication of the ALE address of the station that called to alert the operator of an incoming call. At the conclusion of the call, either operator can “hang-up” or terminate the link;

a disconnect signal is sent to the other station and they each return to the scanning mode. The HF High Frequency in HF communications involve both LQA radios and multi-service channel radios.

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Operations and ARSOF

This chapter describes the range of military operations, characteristics of
ARSOF units and their missions, and considerations for their
employment. It provides an overview of concepts addressed in FM 3-05
(FM 100-25). The fundamental purpose of ARSOF intelligence operations
is to provide the commander with the information required to visualize
the adversary and the environment. This support will enable ARSOF to
successfully conduct worldwide special operations (SO) throughout the
range of military operations supporting the geographic combatant
commanders, American ambassadors and their country teams, and other
government agencies.


1-1. ARSOF are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct SO
independently or in conjunction with the operations of Army conventional
forces, joint forces, and/or combined forces. ARSOF support the national
security strategy by:

• Enhancing security with their unique military capabilities.
• Promoting prosperity by supporting global and domestic stability.
• Promoting security through the development and preservation of


1-2. ARSOF conduct operations throughout the range of military operations
(war and MOOTW). ARSOF provide geographic combatant commanders
additional means to shape the environment and respond to crises, while
preparing for future requirements (Figure 1-1, page 1-2). ARSOF can support
the joint force commander (JFC) at all levels—strategic, operational, or
tactical—as follows:

• The strategic level concerns the broadest aspects of national and
theater policy. Decisions at this level reflect national and multinational
goals, integrate all the instruments of national power, provide forces,
and determine constraints and restraints on their use. The National
Command Authorities (NCA) and the geographic combatant
commanders determine the strategic-national and strategic-theater
objectives and the manner of use of military means to achieve them.
The NCA or the geographic combatant commanders may directly or
indirectly (through subordinate commanders) employ ARSOF in
pursuit of these objectives.



1-4. War is large-scale, sustained combat between nations or organized
groups within a nation. War involves regular and irregular forces in a series
of connected battles and campaigns to achieve vital national, tribal, or ethnic
objectives. War may be limited, with some self-imposed restraints on
resources or objectives. It also may be general, with the total resources of a
nation or nations employed and the survival of the nation at stake.
1-5. ARSOF can support a JFC in war through the conduct of a variety of
offense, defense, stability, and support actions. These actions may either
directly accomplish the JFC’s objectives or indirectly attain these objectives
through the directed support to other subordinate forces of the JFC. In war,
ARSOF are not normally the main effort, but rather supporting forces to the
major air, land, and maritime combat forces.

1-6. SO missions may require unorthodox approaches, but these approaches
do not negate the traditional principles of war. Rather, they place a different
emphasis on their combination or relative importance. In some SO missions,
surprise achieved through speed, stealth, audacity, deception, and new
tactics or techniques can be far more effective and efficient than traditional
conventional tactics that are based on massed firepower and tactical
maneuvers. The following discussion of the principles of war highlights their
application to ARSOF.


1-7. Direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive, and
attainable objective. ARSOF objectives are as much political, economic, and
informational as they are military in nature. ARSOF planners must avoid
adding a secondary objective by balancing risks versus gain. They must have
a clear understanding of the capabilities and limitations of ARSOF. The
addition of secondary objectives erodes the definition and decisiveness of the
primary objective. The intelligence and mission support area of operation capabilities, military, army, and soldiers in the theater of ops. Training of wartime scenarios and other detachment force strength battalion skills…


1-8. Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. ARSOF are inherently offensive
in nature because they seek to strike or engage an adversary to compel,
deter, or counter his actions. The strike or engagement conducted by ARSOF
may take place alongside or by effect of a surrogate force. This force may be
one that ARSOF has previously trained or is currently training. CA and
PSYOP exploit the initiative by gaining the support of the civilians in the area
of operations (AO).

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